Phép quân điền được thực hiện dưới thời nào? | Lịch sử 10

Quiz: Under what era was the military filling performed?

A. Ly Dynasty

B. Tran Dynasty

C. Former Le Dynasty

D. The Le Dynasty

Answer:

Correct answer: D. Early Le Dynasty

“Lieu of army field” – the policy of dividing public land in villages and communes was implemented under the early Le dynasty: the state granted land to nobles and mandarins, and allowed the army to divide public land in the village. village.

Join Trinh Hoai Duc High School to learn about the regime of Loc Quan Dien and Loc Dien during the Early Le Dynasty!

1. What is locating mode?

– The land of fortune is the land regime that the king grants to mandarins and relatives to exploit and use, consider it as a gift and perks that the king bestows.

The Loc Dien regime existed from the feudal period, but was most evident in the laws of the Le dynasty (from 1428 to 1788). The Loc Dien regime is actually the king – as the supreme representative of the central feudal state, has established the law on the allocation of land to the high-ranking mandarins and his relatives. in the royal family to enjoy. Loc Dien is one of the perks of the mandarins (including: Life expectancy – money is given annually; Food HH – the number of households to send, pay taxes, or provide salt and fish sauce; Loc Dien – land is granted. grant for enjoyment). The people who were granted fortune-landing were high-ranking mandarins from the Prince to the fourth-rank officials, who belonged to the highest class of the feudal state. The basis for the king’s grant of a bountiful grant is the rank and title of the mandarin or the meritorious achievement of the king’s reward and credit. Land allocated under the Loc Dien regime is divided into two types: the type of land for inheritance and the type of temporary land for enjoyment. As for the inherited land, it is passed on to the next generation’s descendants to continue to enjoy the benefits. For land temporarily granted for use, the beneficiary dies. After 3 years, his descendants must return the land (locustland) without being hidden. In all cases, the central feudal state represented by the king always asserted the supreme and absolute ownership of the land allocated under the Loc Dien regime. The king can recover the amount of land granted under the Loc Dien regime in certain cases when there is a need.

2. The foundation of the military regime

This institution operated on the basis that most of the land was owned by the imperial court, which was then assigned to families to manage. Each individual, including slaves, was entitled to a certain amount of land, depending on their ability to supply labor. For example, healthy men received 40 acres of land (equivalent to about 1.1 hectares or 2.7 acres), while women received less, and many were granted an additional cow. family owned. After the person assigned to manage the land died, the land was given back to the imperial court to be redistributed, although provisions were allowed to inherit land that required long-term development, such as a mulberry farm. (for silkworms).

This institution was intended to promote the development of the land and to ensure that no agricultural land was left untouched. This prevented the nobility from developing large power bases by monopolizing the fields, and allowed commoners to engage in farming and securing their livelihood. From these, the court was able to develop a tax base and slow the accumulation of land with large estates. This was also used by the Tang dynasties to break the dynastic cycle. The dynastic cycle is the idea that all dynasties will come to an end and this will prevent it by having the people receive land from the imperial court; this made them feel like the court gave them something even though it never left.

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3. The regime of Loc Dien and the army of the Le dynasty

a. Overview of Dai Viet agriculture in the early Le Dynasty

The economy of Dai Viet country in the early Le Dynasty was still mainly based on agriculture as in previous eras, when the industry had not made any significant progress in its application to agriculture. The agricultural production of this period was still the main production of individual small farmers based on experience.

b. Promote agriculture

As early as 1427, when he was besieging Dong Quan citadel, Le Loi had a policy to send 250,000 out of 350,000 troops back to his hometown to cultivate after the war ended, keeping only 100,000 troops as imperial soldiers. . In the same year, he ordered those who fled back to their homeland to cultivate and severely punished those who left their profession.

Building a society based on agriculture as the root, the Le dynasty advocated making full use of the land, not leaving it deserted. In 1428, after the Ming army returned home, Le Thai To ordered the children of generals and leaders to return to their hometown to receive plowing land. In 1429, he ordered again: the gardens of the mandarins in the capital must grow flowers or vegetables, if left untouched, they will be withdrawn.

The exemption and reduction of tax rents in the early years of the Le Dynasty contributed to stimulating agricultural development significantly, recovering after 20 years of Ming occupation.

Le Thanh Tong also absorbed Le Thai To’s thought, stipulated in the Law of Hong Duc: if public land is abandoned, the custodian must report it to the plowman to reclaim it, otherwise he will be prosecuted.

c. Set up a plantation

Due to the fact that much of the land was abandoned after the war, the Le Dynasty adopted a policy to encourage people to reclaim land and set up plantations to take advantage of the labor of prisoners and criminals.

The reclamation started from the Ly Dynasty; The establishment of the plantation organization and the appointment of the deputy chief of the plantation was carried out from the Tran Dynasty. The Le Dynasty succeeded the previous dynasties, for the prisoners of the Minh and the Champa people when exploring new lands and establishing villages. The public gods Trinh Kha, Nguyen Xi, Le Thu, Tran Lan … were granted prisoners to go reclamation. Newly established lands named after guard and department were formed along the riverside in Hung Nguyen, Thien Bao, and Dien Chau districts.

In the reign of Le Thanh Tong, the plantation policy was widely implemented. The king issued a decree to establish plantations, expand the scale of plantations in the localities, take advantage of the labor of exiles and criminals. By 1481, there were 43 plantations in the country:

– The Northern region has 30 departments

– Thanh Hoa has 5 departments

– Nghe An has 4 departments

– Thuan Hoa has 2 departments

– Quang Nam has 2 departments

The plantations in the North are usually small and bear the name of commune; while the plantations from Thanh Hoa onwards are larger and bear the name of the district, because these lands have many unexploited places.

d. Migration and colonization

Not only taking advantage of the labor of prisoners and criminals, the Le Dynasty also focused on the labor force of farmers in the localities to expand the wasteland. Under Le Thanh Tong’s reign, two new types of fields were formed, namely, “cannon fields” and “communication fields”.

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– Announcement fields are abandoned fields in villages and communes that are allowed by the court to cultivate after reporting. The explorer must live in the same government, district, commune. They benefited from that plowed field and passed it on to their descendants, but they were not allowed to turn it into a private field, but still owned it.

– The field occupied by radiation is also an urgent field to pay taxes. Depending on the strength of the people who go to explore, how much land they can work on, they will benefit after paying taxes and can apply to the Ministry of Households for private farming.

With the policy of reclamation and allowing farmers to own private fields, the Le Dynasty encouraged agricultural productivity to increase significantly, reducing conflicts in society over land.

Due to the policy of encouraging people, the coastal areas of Yen Quang, Son Nam and Thuan Hoa returned to the capital with a sparse population and more and more people came to live.

e. Land mode

The land system of the early Le dynasty divided into two main types: public and private fields.

– Public fields are called military fields. Among the public fields, a part was awarded to the gods, given to nobles and mandarins, called Loc Dien. Royal princes can be granted up to 2000 acres of land (500 acres of which are inherited warm land); The top officials were granted 200 acres of field (of which 20 were inherited warm land).

However, Le Quy Don in the book Kien Van Tieu Luc said that the actual land was not enough to implement this policy, so the policy was only partially implemented, so in the name of the quarters. Clans and mandarins are entitled to 10 shares, but in fact, they are only allocated about 1/5 of the amount on paper.

Another part in public fields, public land and wasteland is declared, measured and divided among classes from generals, soldiers, mandarins, people to the elderly and weak in the localities. That’s called military mode. The military regime had the effect of stabilizing social order and restoring agricultural production.

– The private fields of the early Le dynasty were mainly owned by aristocrats, mandarins and landowners. Another small part is in the hands of farmers with self-cultivation fields, if there are many fields, they become landlords.

f. Water treatment and irrigation

The tropical monsoon climate causes Dai Viet to often flood in the rainy season and in drought and dry season. Therefore, embankment and irrigation are urgent requirements of agricultural production.

Under Le Thai Tong, in 1438, the king dug and opened canals in Truong Yen, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An.

In 1449, Le Nhan Tong ordered the Department of Natural Resources to dig the Binh Lo River from Lanh Canh to Phu Lo Bridge with a length of 2500 zhang (10 km).

In 1467, Le Thanh Tong ordered the Ministry of Households to declare or fill the water lines in the fields, so as not to let the fields become waterlogged or drought. In the same year, he ordered channels in Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Thuan Hoa.

Under Le Thanh Tong, the construction of river and sea dykes was more focused than in previous times. In Ninh Binh, in 1472, the king built a stone dyke in Yen Mo district from the north of Than Phu estuary to the south bank of Con estuary, and an earthen dike from Coi Tri commune, Yen Mo district to the south bank of Bong Hai commune, Yen Khanh district. . The anti-salinity dyke built in the Hong Duc era is called Hong Duc dike, which is nearly 25 km long, and still has traces in the north of Hai Hau district.

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In 1503, Le Hien Tong ordered An Phuc to go down to Thuong Phuc to collect water to irrigate the fields for the people.

In addition to large projects, small projects for drought resistance are regularly carried out.

Dike repair and irrigation were included in the imperial regulations. In 1475, Le Thanh Tong issued a decree on repairing dikes and roads. In the same year, he set up the Ha De official to take care of the dikes and the Agricultural Extension officer to urge the people to cultivate.

Although the level of agricultural production in the early Le dynasty was improved compared to previous generations, there was no significant change in general. Agriculture is still typical of the technical level of smallholder farming based on long-term labor and experience, with rudimentary and small tools. Large irrigation projects organized by the imperial court as well as small projects contributed by the people have contributed to limiting the harmful effects of natural disasters and ensuring agricultural production in the country.

Thus, after the Le dynasty was officially established, King Le Thai To ordered the mandarins, districts, towns and highways to investigate some types of land for confiscation, including fields of deserters. Not only did the land register (land register), the court also collected the land of the families, the martyrs, the deserters. Thus, the court confiscated all the land of the mandarins of the Ming government, the land of the Tran nobles, the abandoned land, etc., as public property. On that basis, the Le dynasty promulgated the land policy, using state-owned land to bestow upon the public servants, granting high-ranking mandarins to do the land, assigning the communes to decentralize the people. plowing and paying rent according to the military land regime. The imperial court directly managed the national treasury and plantations, in addition, organized reclamation and established many new plantation departments.

According to the book “Vuong Trieu Le (1428-1527)” by Prof. Dr. Nguyen Quang Ngoc is the editor, worried about people who go to war are poor, and those who roam around are rich, so King Le Thai To ordered the local military authorities to grant wasteland to people without fields. in villages so that they can cultivate and live. Although the results of setting up a field book and initially implementing the policy of military and land in Thuan Thien’s time were not very complete, but that policy brought land to all classes of people, helping them quickly stabilize their lives. promote agricultural economic development.

Posted by: Trinh Hoai Duc High School

Category: Grade 10, History 10

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